Designs for torpedoes with three, rather than two speed-settings were undertaken to alleviate the concern with the fixed-speed E. Lessons drawn from Jutland sparked the idea that the 10, yard setting for torpedoes was nearly useless, but that there might be a better setting that was between 10, and the E. A meeting under Admiral Sturdee with Vernon representatives yielded a report stating: .
This report resulted in the decision to design fittings for torpedoes capable of being quickly adjusted to three settings the 4, yard figure may have been reduced to 4, Details of them are in T. The first in Mark IV torpedoes began being issued in February A large programme was instituted to quickly convert existing torpedoes to the standard. Conversions got underway in December , starting with the first half-flotilla of the Thirteenth Destroyer Flotilla with wide scale execution in place by the end of The Royal Navy placed its first orders for heater torpedoes in , burning "Broxburn Lighthouse Oil", similar to paraffin.
Elswick heaters, a simple jet of fuel lit by a cartridge called an "igniter" were simpler but less efficient than the fuel-air R. The Royal Navy first started ordering and installing "Weymouth pattern" gyroscopes provided by Whitehead in Satisfaction with early results  was such that by , all the new manufacture torpedoes were having gyros installed, and a brisk trade in retrofitting existing torpedoes was kicked off.
By the end of , 1, gyros had been ordered and something over 80 ships were equipped with gyroscopes, though it was commonplace at this point to have one gyro per every two gyro-capable torpedoes. Originally, and the general case, gyroscopes only controlled the vertical rudders of the torpedo to keep it on a perfectly straight course. Previous to their use, it was incumbent on torpedomen to carefully adjust the rudders into a fixed position so the individual torpedoes would roughly go straight on practice runs much as a child might tune the "flaps" of a paper airplane and to try to avoid or take into account any deflections in heading that might occur as the torpedo entered the water medium.
By , the dirigible nature of a gyro torpedo inspired creation of gyro angling and pattern running designs. The idea of angling gyros for submarine firings was proposed in by the Inspecting Captain, and trials held at Portland Range. Gyro angling was trialed and refined in , when Vernon is sounding out ideas for data instruments to convey gyro angles as part of a larger plan for communications between torpedo control and firing positions, as such torpedoes are "now under trial".
The initial design indicates angles up to 40 degrees on either side, in 10 degree increments. Orion tested two in pattern running "gyro control" torpedoes in One test run was perfect, producing a hit, and the second run had a much greater radius to its second turn owing to a fault that seemed correctible. Two other torpedoes tested at Vernon had "Type B" S-zig-zag running gear, where the turns would alternate left and right.
The "A" gear caused a turn of 16 points after running a predetermined distance, thereafter repeating the turn every 1, yards to describe an oval yards wide. The gyro was modified so that it would rectify small errors in the turns to exactly 16 points.
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The initial tests were successful, but an improved design was to be created for adoption in new torpedoes. The "B" type also seemed to work nicely, but the mechanism was more complex and there was no clear idea as to whether the S pattern offered a tactical advantage to offset this complexity, and so trials were closed in In , trials of "A" type were dropped, intended to be re-opened later with 2, yards rather 1, yards danger area. Those torpedoes being tested with "B" type gear were to be returned to depots for restoration to Service patterns, as the mechanism was deemed impracticable.
The basic mechanism had not been further improved by , but they were being ordered for manufacture with a priority being placed on submarine torpedoes. The most vital technology embodied in Whitehead's work was the design of a depth-keeping mechanism that prevented "porpoising". Previous torpedoes had used a manometer to measure their depth, and this input was tied to the angle of the horizontal rudders to cause the weapon to attempt to keep the desired depth.
Whitehead saw that this one datum was not enough information from which to design a good control system. He added a pendulum in some implementations, a one-dimensional flywheel gyroscope , which provided a measure of the torpedo's pitch angle in the water. This angle was, at small angles, proportional to the rate of change of depth as the torpedo sped forward through the water; Whitehead was adding a derivative to the control system.
The Royal Navy eventually came up with its own designs called the "Ulan" and "Weymouth" systems.
By , the "Ulan" system was found too finicky for continued development. It was found to have 3 knots advantage over the in Mark I torpedo R. However, in short yards tests limited by a canal, the Fiume torpedo was 0. The in Mark III torpedo was introduced.
Among 17 innovations listed for it was that each torpedo's trial speed was stamped on the air chamber. It made The new torpedoes were shorter Also, Whitehead had altered 12 and was to alter 12 more in Fiume Mark II torpedoes to make them more reliable. In addition, the Annual Report of the Torpedo School for includes detailed accounting of torpedoes on hand, lost, disposed of, undergoing alteration, and under manufacture. These are presented so clearly that we shall produce them here in as originally presented. Most substantial, however, was the purchase of Mark IV Fiume torpedoes from Whitehead, some in hand and the balance expected by the end of the fiscal year.
The Mark IV torpedoes had proven successful, and did At the same time, the Royal Laboratory at Woolwich was making in Mark V torpedoes , the first two having already been tested and proven satisfactory. Their design improvements were enumerated as nine in number. Deviation in the 24 runs of the two test torpedoes had not exceeded 6 feet at yards, and they had made speeds of One hundred phosphor-bronze in torpedoes were purchased from Schwartzkopff of Berlin, and the first 50 received.
These were found similar to in Fiume Mark II torpedoes , but almost free of corrosion due to their construction. They could be pressurized to 1, psi and make They lost 86 pounds of pressure per day on average.
volunteerparks.org/wp-content/lucigeq/239.php A reduction in target size to one third the prior standard accounts for the shortfall. Some or all of these may have been "Leeds" torpedoes. Markings of the torpedoes was therefore to change to R.
Individual torpedoes were requiring, on average, 16 test runs to be passed. Alterations in the Mark VIIIs were retrofitted to those already made, back to number , but no change in name accompanied the eleven alterations listed.
Conversion of R. Most of these were sent to the Malta range for adjustment, and Mediterranean ships with these Marks of torpedo were exchanging their supplies as opportunity allowed. A single example was run times to test different propellor designs. The "short" models were to weigh pounds and be A second design was 12 feet 4 inches long and pounds, and had a larger engine giving greater stability.
As this still worked in the experimental tube, two more of these were ordered.
A delivery of in torpedoes from Fiume had been completed, two of which were "short" were found to do The R. Trials of a new Whitehead submerged tube was undertaken in Vulcan , comparing it to a Service design. The Service pattern would continue to be chosen. The 45 for submerged fire made Abuli writing is so funny in a very dark,brutal way.
I bought this book mostly for the legendary spanish artist Jordi Bernet who has become my favorite artist of them all in recent years thanks to his work with Jonah Hex. He is mostly known for this series and i can see why. Its not hyperbole when i say i have not seen better artwork than in this volu This series is a very different take on the gangster era of s USA and its mostly stories of dark humor than straight hardboiled gangster story. Its not hyperbole when i say i have not seen better artwork than in this volume in any comic series, GN i have read.
I was thinking more like how cool, awesome the art looked in every page. His style is very european, retro and it was an honor to read his best artwork. View all 3 comments. Jul 27, Alex rated it it was amazing Shelves: european-comics. Can't get any better than that.
Abuli and Bernet's masterpiece, Torpedo, is the story of Luca Torelli's rise Torpedo Vol. 1. Torpedo Vol. 2. Torpedo Vol. 3. Torpedo Vol. 4. Torpedo Volume 3 [Enrique Sanchez Abuli, Jordi Bernet] on zhestcountdisprestlec.ml The third volume is the best so far (although vol 1 has illustrations by Toth which.
Ich vergebe hier mal kritische drei Punkte, da das ganze auf Dauer nicht so recht von der Stelle kommen mag. Nov 13, Ryan rated it really liked it Shelves: classics. More of the same. One of the stories focuses on the protagonists parents and family and kind of changes things up by not really being funny at all.